Tuesday, November 16, 2010

United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM)

United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM)

Established to assist the Government of Angola and the União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (UNITA) in restoring peace and achieving national reconciliation on the basis of the Peace Accords for Angola, signed on 31 May 1991, the Lusaka Protocol signed on 20 November 1994, and relevant Security Council resolutions.

UNAVEM I (January 1989--May 1991) verified the total 
withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola. UNAVEM I 
I(June 1991--February 1995) verified the peace 
arrangements agreed by the Angolan Government 
and UNITA, in accordance with the Peace 
Accords for Angola, and was later called upon to 
observe and verify the elections held in 
September 1992. After renewed fighting broke out 
between Government and UNITA forces in the 
aftermath of the elections, UNAVEM II continued 
its presence in Angola at reduced strength.
The signing of the Lusaka Protocol on 20 November 
1994 marked a new stage in the Angolan peace process. 
The Protocol consisted of a number of documents, 
each relating to a particular issue on the agenda 
of the peace talks, covering legal, military, police 
and political issues, as well as the role for the United Nations.
On 1 February 1995, the Secretary-General 
recommended to the Security Council that UNAVEM 
III take over from UNAVEM II to help the parties 
restore peace and achieve national reconciliation. 
On 8 February, the Security Council authorized the 
establishment of UNAVEM III with a maximum strength 
of 7,000 troops and military support personnel, 350 
military observers, 260 police observers and some 
420 internationally recruited civilian staff, 300 locally 
recruited staff and 75 United Nations Volunteers. 
The date envisaged by the Council for the completion 
of the UNAVEM III mandate was February 1997.
Notwithstanding many positive developments, 
the implementation process fell substantially 
behind schedule, and the lack of mutual trust 
between the Government and UNITA jeopardized 
the attainment of lasting peace. In its resolution 
1075 of 11 October 1996, the Security Council 
emphasized that continuing delays and unfilled promises, 
in particular on the part of UNITA, 
in implementing the successive timetables f
or the completion of key military and political 
issues were no longer acceptable.
After UNITA submitted a list of tasks which it had 
to fulfil by 15 November 1996 (later extended to 
20 November), UNAVEM III prepared a 
comprehensive implementation timetable, 
encompassing all pending military, 
police and political tasks to be completed 
by both parties. In his report to the Council of 
19 November 1996, the Secretary-General stated 
that the agreement on a consolidated timetable for 
the completion of the pressing tasks had brought the 
most urgent issues into focus. Some progess 
had been made, but the implementation of the timetable 
was still lagging behind.
In the meantime, in light of the envisaged date for t
he completion of the mandate, plans for the start 
of the orderly and phased drawdown of UNAVEM III 
were finalized. Those plans include the withdrawal by 
the end of December 1996 of four United Nations infantry 
and support units, with a total strength of between 600 to 
700 personnel.
On 30 June, the Security Council decided to establish, 
as of 1 July, the United Nations Observer Mission in 
Angola (MONUA). The new follow-on mission would 
replace UNAVEM III. In a unanimous vote on Monday, the 
Council also decided that the initial mandate of the new 
mission would end on 31 October 1997. The Council strongly 
urged the Government of Angola and, in particular, the National 
Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) to 
complete without delay the remaining political and military 
aspects of the peace process, including, among other things, 
the normalization of State administration throughout the 
territory of Angola, the transformation of the UNITA radio 
station into a non-partisan broadcasting facility, and the 
transformation of UNITA into a political party. Appealing to b
oth parties to refrain from any use of force which 
could obstruct the full implementation of the peace process, 
the Council "strongly urged the parties to complete 
the registration and demobilization of all remaining military 
elements, the elimination of all obstacles to free circulation 
of people and goods, and the disarmament of the civilian population".
  • 13 March 95 to 1997
  • 10x Military Observers

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